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In large electrical systems of Extra High, High and Medium Voltage data enabling a predictive approach refers to: partial discharges, load and screen currents, temperatures, pressures, and acoustic events.
Partial discharges are intrinsic phenomena that may occur within the insulation material (dielectric) of cables and their accessories and that, in the longrun,may damage such material up to causing the failure of a whole cable system.
Load currents are a key parameter that identifies the current actually carried by acable. Real-time knowledge of its exact value allows to understand if a cable is doing its job properly and, most of all, within the system's design technical limits.
It can measure acoustic events that occur in the vicinity of a cable. This technology applies to high voltage underground or submarine cables equipped with optical fibre, and allows detection of different types of acoustic events, from the least worrisome (earthmoving, trains, passage of ships) to the most potentially dangerous to damage a cable,like excavators, anchors or fishing.
Screen currents are a side effect of the electricity transmitted by a cable system and, regardless of the system's configuration, they always tend to be kept at the lowest level possible.
An abnormal localised temperature increase is a symptom that the cable, at the point where the abnormal temperature increase has been detected, is not able to carry the maximum current.
Pressure in an electrical system is measured to check the correct level of various insulating fluid or gas materials. It is useful to verify that network components such as oil-immersed transformer terminals, gas insulated switchgear(GIS) and transition joints are filled with the correct amount of insulating material, otherwise they could trigger failures.
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